英语语言中笼统词有have， take 等，笼统词的重要特点在于意义广泛，搭配性强，构成词组后可以替代众多具体动词。虽然不能精确表达一个动作，却能大致表达意思。在一些具体动词写不出来的时候，用这些笼统词取代，也能收到异曲同工的效果。
I experienced a terrible hard time.
这一句中，experience被遗忘时，用have代替，成为：I had a terrible hard time. 其效果及表达的意义决不亚于第一句。这样的例子还很多。如：
Do you understand my meaning， sir？ = Do you take my meaning， sir？
I will preside over the meeting. = I will take the meeting.
I will subscribe to the local newspaper. = I will take the local newspaper.
They occupied the city. = They took the city.
The boy resembles his father. = The boy takes after his father.
I had a nightmare last night. = I had a bad dream last night.
Nightmare 使用频率不太高，因此不太好记。而其同义词bad dream 却很容易记。以后者取代前者丝毫不影响原句的意义。再比如：I don‘t understand this word. 也可以说成 I don’t know this word.
He is stupid. = He is foolish. = He is a fool. = He is silly.
The food is delicious. = The food is tasty. = The food is nice to eat.
They discontinued the work at five. = They stopped the work at five.
His temper is nasty. = His temper is terrible. = He has a bad temper.
He is stubborn. = He is not tame.
The knife is blunt. = The knife is not sharp.
This is expensive. = This is not cheap.
She is talkative. = She is never quiet.
He is a dumb. = He is a person who can not speak.
He refused. = He said “no”。
I‘ve never seen such a stubborn person. = I’ve never seen such a person who never listens to other‘s advice.
Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all detest is， but all being domineered by it. It represents a trial； the grade its verdict.
Nowadays， examination has become a popular form of testing. It almost can dominate one‘s future. I am not exaggerating； for you all know it is true. If we want to obtain a diploma， we must first pass the exams. If we do not have a diploma， we may not find a job easily. That is the reason why all students are nervous and pale when they are sitting for an important examination which may concern their future.
But as long as examination is on its peak of power， we must be philosophical of it. Do not always think of the harm that it brings， but think of the good it may do to us. If we do not have exams， we may indulge ourselves in other things instead of books. Exams have to always drive us on. What is wrong for learning more and thoroughly？
Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all dislike it （hate it）， but all being ruled by it. It is a trial； the grade its decision.
Nowadays， examination has become a popular form of testing. It almost can control one‘s future. I am telling the truth， for you all know it is true. If we want to get a graduation paper， we may not find a job easily. That is the reason why all students are nervous and pale when they are sitting for an important examination which may have something to do with their future.
But as long as examination is on its highest point of power， we must have a calm attitude to it. Do not always think of the harm that it brings， but think of the good it may do to us. If we do not have exams， we may spend our time on other things instead of books. Exams have to always drive us on. What is wrong for learning more and deeply？