新闻的种类很多,按分类标准的不同,有各种不同的分类方法。如按照事件的性质分类,新闻可分为“硬新闻(hard news)和”软新闻“(soft news)两大类,硬新闻也就是”纯新闻消息报道“,指题材严肃,具有一定时效性的客观事实报道;软新闻是指情感味浓,写作方法诙谐,轻松幽默的社会新闻,不注重时效性。新闻英语中常见的体裁主要有三大类:消息(news)、特写(features)和新闻评论(commentaries and columns)。




  导语(1ead or introduction):通常为文章的第一段。文章的第一段提供主要话题和最主要的事实。


  在此我们以消息为例,详细分析一下它的基本结构。消息类新闻属于“硬新闻”,是广泛采用的的一种新闻体裁。消息报道中的导语十分重要,它位于第一段或第一、二段。通过它点出新闻的主题,这是消息这种新闻文体区别于其它文体的一个重要特征。五个W和一个H(When?Where?Who?What?Why?和How?)是构成一则完整的消息不可缺少的要素。直接的消息报道或纯消息报道一般采用“倒金字塔形式”(the Inverted Pyramid Form),其特点是按新闻报道最重要的五个W和一个H头重脚轻地安排材料,把新闻的高潮和结论放在最前面的导语里,然后以事实的重要性递减的顺序来安排(in theorder of descending importance)材料。



  The Inverted Pyramid Form

  Introduction containing most important or most interesting


  more facts 更多的事实材料

  supporting information or background 辅助性消息或背景材料

  quotes or more facts of lesser importance引语或次要的事实材料

  minor details 细节材料

  least significant information 最不重要的消息?


  NOVEMBER 22,19:43EST,2001

  ??28 Killed in Colombia Landslide


  ??Associated Press Writer

  FILADELFIA Colom bia(AP)—Rain-softened walls of a condemned strip mine crashed down on

  scores of gold miners in western Colom- bia Thursday,killingat least 28 and leaving 40

  others missing,authorities said.

  The victims were said to be poor people who ignored government warnings that erosion had

  made the mine unsafe.It appeared both the illegal digging and recent heavy rains were to

  blame for the accident.

  Survivors said two separate mudslides occurred at the site in Filadelfia,a small town

  120 miles west of Bogotá.The second avalanche buried miners who were trying to rescue friends who had been engulfed in the first avalanche.

  Rescuers shoveled furiously for hours in hopes of finding som- ebody alive,butonly recovered bodies.

  As night fell Thursday,national disaster chief Eduardo Jose Gonzalez said hopes of finding anyone alive waned as crews prepared to suspend operations.The search was to resume Friday.

  Gonzalez said 28bodies had been recovered,and at least 40 people were missing. Thirty-two miners were reported injured and taken to hospitals.

  Hundreds of people had gathered at the scene,many of them anguished and weepingrelatives.

  Emergency crews from the Red Cross and

  the civil defense forces were using heavy machinery to remove the thick mud spread over

  the site.Complicating the?recovery effort,huge pools of water had seeped into the site

  from a river running up to the hillside—used by the miners to rinse gold particles fromdirt.

  Survivors said the earth crashed down without warning on a group of about 200 people trying to scrape gold from the well-worn hill-side.The workers were toiling with shovels

  and picks inside a deep hole they had carved into the hill.The cavern had no structural


  Many workers managed to scramble out of the way or crawl out from beneath the mud.

  Others were not so lucky.

  “We heard a very loud sound and the hill suddenly fell down upon us,”said 20-year-old Manuel Loaiza.“I was trapped up to my knees but some of the others dragged me out.”

  Loaiza said he made less than $9a day at the crude mine.His 39-year-old uncle is still missing under the mud.

  According to Julian Arboleda,an aide to Caldas State governor Luis Alfonso Arias,of- ficials ordered the mine closed several months ago.But residents thrown out of workby Colom bia's econom- ic downturn took the risk of working there anyway,Arboleda said.

  Landslides triggered by rains are Colombia's most common natural disaster,killing dozens of people annually.Thursday's accident was the worst such tragedy in recent years.

  According to the government's disaster relief agency,nearly 200 people died in a poor neighborhood in the city of Medellinwhen a 1987 landslide buried their houses.Landslides buried 150 dam workers in 1983 and a rescue team sent on their behalf.


  消息“。美联社新闻报道的时间通常置于消息的最前面(NOVEMBER 22,19:43EST),即美国的标准时11月22日19点43分。








  Who—gold miners

  What—were killed


  Where—in western Colombia

  Why—the walls of mine were softened by rain

  How—(were killed)by crash


[此贴子已经被作者于2005-10-24 10:50:45编辑过]