1. Pass the buck----shift the responsibility to someone else
We all know that buck is informal American English for a dollar. Indeed, it can also be used for an Australian dollar, a New Zealand dollar, a South African rand, and an Indian rupee – but none of those senses are related to pass the buck.
我们都知道buck是美元dollor非正式的美式英语表达。实际上，buck也可用于表达澳元，新西兰元，南非兰特和印度卢布-但所有这些含义都和pass the buck 这个习语没有联系。
This particular buck is ‘an article placed as a reminder in front of a player whose turn it is to deal at poker’ – which means passing it make much more sense. This item also gives us the phrase the buck stops here; both figurative phrases have moved far beyond their poker origins.
这里的buck是特指“在纸牌游戏中当轮到某人发牌时，放置在玩家面前作为提示的物品”，这样传递这个物品便有了更多的含义。这件物品同样给了我们另一个短语the buck stops here（责无旁贷）；这两个比喻意味的短语，其含义已经远远超出了扑克的起源。
2. Turn over a new leaf----start to act or behave in a better or more responsible way
It has nothing to do with foliage,but relates to another common use of leaf: one of the pages in a book. A similar derivation gives us to take a leaf out of someone’s book, meaning ‘imitate or emulate someone in a particular way’.
这个短语和叶子无关，而和leaf另一个常见的含义有关：书中的一页。类似的引申出to take a leaf out of someone’s book这个短语，表示“模仿某人”。
3. Push the envelope----to approach or extend the limits of what is possible
This envelope isn’t the sort you’d put letters in.Push the envelope was originally aviation slang relating to graphs of aerodynamic performance and exceeding the set of limiting cobinations of speed and altitude.
这个信封并不是我们装信的信封。Push the envelope最初是航空俚语，与空气动力性能的图表相关并且超过速度和高度的合并限制。
4. Ring the changes----vary the ways of expressing or doing something
This phrase has nothing to do with pen and paper. Instead, it came originally with allusion to bell-ringing and the different orders in which a peal of bells may be rung.
5. Leave someone in the lurch----leave an associate or friend abruptly and without assistance or support when they are in a difficult situation
The word lurch in this phrase derives from the French lourche, which is the name of a game resembling backgammon.
6. Lick into shape----act forcefully to bring someone or something into a fitter, more efficient, or better-organized state
In Medieval Europe, it was believed that bears’ young were born shapeless, and licking into shape refers to the alleged practice of bears licking their offspring into ursine form.
在中世纪的欧洲，人们认为熊生下来是没有形状的，lick the shape指的是熊将他们的后代舔成熊的形状。
7. Flash in the pan----a thing or person whose sudden but brief success it no repeated or repeatable
If you’re thinking anything to do with cooking or panning for gold, then you’re barking up the wrong tree: flash in the pan is with allusion to the priming of a firearm. The flash arises from an explosion of gunpowder within the pan, which was a part of the lock that held the priming in old types of gun.
如果你想到的是烹饪或者淘金相关，那么你便找错了目标，flash in the pan与火枪的推进器有关。光亮由火药盘内的火药爆炸时产生，火药盘是枪支保险栓的一部分，在老式枪支中用来完成推进。
8. Pull out all the stops----make a very great effort to achieve something
These stops are organ pipes of a particular tone and range of pitch and the handles which control them; by pulling all the stops out, you would create a louder, more elaborate sound.