Prince William and Catherine posed at the mausoleum in Agra on the final day of their tour of India and Bhutan.
William’s mother was captured sitting alone in front of the monument to love in 1992, shortly before the break up of her marriage to the Prince of Wales.
Royal officials said the duke and duchess hoped to forge new memories.
The couple were visiting the Taj Mahal after flying back to India from Bhutan.
By Peter Hunt, BBC royal correspondent
It was a day when a new royal narrative was written at India’s Taj Mahal.
The Diana photographs captured isolation; a princess soon to loosen her ties to the monarchy.
Today, her son, a prince, brought his wife to the Indian monument to love - something his father promised and failed to do with his first wife.
Here was a duke and a duchess who appeared comfortable together and in their own skins.
Tourists at the World Heritage Site are told by their guides about the "Diana bench". It’s a talk that will have to be updated. Fresh memories have been created.
In searing temperatures of 41C （106F） they walked through the grounds to a marble plinth and sat down on the bench in front of a bank of photographers.
They were later given a private tour inside the mausoleum.
Earlier, the Cambridge’s communications secretary Jason Knauf said: "The Duke of Cambridge is of course aware of the huge esteem his mother, the late Princess of Wales, is held in in India and he appreciates the status of the images that exist of the Princess at the Taj.
"He feels incredibly lucky to visit a place where his mother’s memory is kept alive by so many who travel there.
"Twenty-four years on from her visit to the Taj, the duke and the duchess are looking forward to seeing this beautiful place for themselves and creating some new memories as they say thank you to the people of India at the conclusion of this tour."
The Taj Mahal was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in the mid-17th Century as a monument of love to his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
It took 22 years and 20,000 men to build it from white marble transported from 200 miles away by elephants.