帖子主题: 虚拟语气,你会用吗?  

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发表于:2014-02-25 14:43:42
虚拟语气在考试中比较常见。尤其是在听力中经常出现。它主要是表达一种“假设”或者“推测”,而不是客观显示中的真实事件。因为主要通过动词的变化来反应不同的情况,所以如果不熟悉虚拟语气的基本表示方法,会直接影响听力。同时翻译中也经常使用。
                                            
                   
              
                   

                         条件从句

              
                   

                         主句

              
                   

                         与现在事实相反

              
                   

                            动词过去式

              
                   

                         should/would+动词原形

              
                   

                         与过去事实相反

              
                   

                         had+过去分词

              
                   

                         should/ would +have+过去分词

              
                   

                         与将来事实可能相反

              
                   

                         动词过去式/were to/should

              
                   

                         should/ would +动词原形

              
                   
              
     与现在事实相反:
     If I were you , I would apply for the job.
     与过去事实相反:
     If I had taken your advice, I wouldn’t have made such mistake.
     与将来事实相反:
     If it rained tomorrow, I would stay at home.
     真题翻译示例
     例1:
     They requested that _______(我借的书还回图书馆)by next Friday.
     1. 动词request引导的从句应用虚拟语气
     2. 虚拟语气的表达方式:should+动词原形,此题则为:should return
     3. 按句意顺序译,得出答案:I should return the book to library
     例2:
     The victim ________(本来有机会活下来)if he had been taken to hospital in time.
     1. 一看句意有“本来”,十之八九为虚拟语气
     2. 二看时态推后了,本该过去时,却用过去完成时,因此一定考虚拟
     3.按句意译为:would have a chance to survive
     哪些动词及其与他们相关的名词,从句需虚拟语气?
     一想要(desire)二宁愿(prefer)三命令(order. command)
     四建议(advice. suggest. propose)
     五要求(demand. require. request. ask. insist),另加一个wish
     实战练习:
     1. It is strange that he _________ so.
     A. would say             B. would speak
     C. should say             D. will speak
     2. My father did not go to New York; the doctor suggested that he _________ there.
     A. not went              B. won’t go
     C. not go                D. not to go
     3. I wish that I _________ with you last night.
     A. went                  B. could go
     C. have gone               D. could have gone
     4. If you had told me in advance, I _________ him at the airport.
     A. would meet           B. would had met
     C. would have met         D. would have meet
     5. Mike can take his car apart and put it back together again. I certainly wish he _________ me how.
     A. teaches             B. will teach
     C. has taught           D. would teach
     6. I enjoyed the movie very much. I wish I _________ the book from which it was made.
     A. have read           B. had read
     C. should have read        D. are reading
     7. You are late. If you _________ a few minutes earlier, you _________ him.
     A. come; would meet      B. had come; would have met
     C. come; will meet         D. had come; would meet
     8. If she could sew, _________.
     A. she make a dress        B. she would have made a shirt
     C. she will make a shirt        D. she would had made a coat
     9. If I _________ you, I _________ more attention to English idioms and phrases.
     A. was; shall pay         B. am; will pay
     C. would be; would pay     D. were; would pay
     10. Had I known her name, _________
     A. or does she know mine?    B. and where does she live?
     C. she would be beautiful.    D. I would have invited her to lunch.
     答案及解析:
     1. C 2. C 3. D 4. C 5. D 6. B 7.B 8. B 9.D 10. D
     1. It is strange that是主语从句的虚拟语气,从句用sb. should do的形式。
     2. suggest后面的从句用sb. should do的形式,should可以省略。 
     3. 虚拟语气。wish从句后接虚拟语气。could have done表示“本来可以”。
     4. in advance表示“事先”, would have done表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。
     5. wish的宾语从句表示发生在将来的愿望用过去将来时。
     6. wish后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。
     7. 条件句表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时,从句用过去完成时。
     8. would have done是过去将来完成时,表示与过去相反的虚拟语气。
     9. 在虚拟语气中,不管什么人称,be动词都要用were的形式。
     10. had I known是与过去相反的虚拟语气的倒装形式,因此主句要用would have done。
 
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发表于:2014-02-28 09:30:25
很详细嘛

非原创,我只是帖子的搬运工
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虚拟语气,你会用吗?


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