帖子主题: 俄语考试:不定代词与否定词讲解  

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大部分不定代词由疑问代词кто,что,какой, чей和语气词-то,-нибудь, -либо,кое-两部分构成。例如:кто-нибудь, кто-то, кто-либо, кое-кто, некто, что-то, что-нибудь, что-либо, кое-что, нечто,какой-то,какой-нибудь,чей-то, чей-нибудь等;否定代词主要有前缀не-,ни-和疑问代词кто,что,какой, чей派生而来的。例如:никто некого, ничто, нечего, ничей, никакой等。


一、不定代词的用法:


1、带кое-的不定代词:这类代词表示说话者本人确实知道而其他人并不知道的一些人、事物或事物特征。例如:


① Кое-кто опоздал на урок сегодня.


② Я подарил бабушке кое-что на её день рождения.


③ Я не верю кое-какому ответу.


④ Я не согласен кое на кого.(带кое-的代词与前置词连用时,前置词要置于кое-和代词之间。


2、带语气词-то的不定代词:这类代词表示说话者确知有其人、物或事物的某特征,但却不能说出其具体如何。翻译时常译为“ 有个人”、“某个人”、“有个东西”、“某事”等意义。例如:


① Кто-то за стеной поёт.


② В комнате стоит чей-то стол.(不知是谁的)


3、带语气词-нибудь (-либо)的不定代词:这类代词表示说话人和其他人都不能肯定的人、物或事物特征。常译为“随便什么人(物)”、“无论什么人(物)”等意义。多用于表示愿望、命令、条件、假设或疑问意义的句子中。例如:


① Расскажи нам какую-нибудь новость!


② Пришлите кого-нибудь из учеников в кабинет за тетрадями!


③ Когда меня не было, приходил ли кто-нибудь ко мне?


带-либо的不定代词主要用于书面语体中,而带-нибудь的不定代词可用于所有语体中。他们意义相同。


4、不定代词некто, нечто:他们的意义接近于кто-то, что-то,但他们常与表示某种特征的词(如形容词、带前置词的名词等用作定语的词或词组)连用。некто只有第一格形式,而代词нечто只有第一、第四格形式。 此外,некто与人的姓氏和名字连用表示不确定的人,译为“某个叫……的人”。例如:


① Она видела нечто чёрное.


② Подошёл к двери некто в шапке.


③ Некто Алёша тебя ждёт.


二、否定代词的用法:


1、否定代词никто, ничто用作主语和补语,ничей, никакой用作定语。常用于否定句中,表示没有进行(实现)或不能进行的行为,句中常有нет (не было, не будет), не+动词谓语及带нельзя等的否定词。与前置词连用时,前置词常置于ни-和代词之间。例如:


① В темнате ничего не видел он.


② В трудном положении я ни к кому обращаюсь за помощью.


③ Нам не нужна никакая помощь.


2、否定代词некого, нечего:常和动词不定式连用,用于无人称句中,表示由于缺少条件(客体)而不能实现的行为。有前置词时,前置词置于не和代词之间。


① Мне нечего делать, сидеть дома без дела.我无事可干,闲坐在家。


② Он всегда считает, что ему не у кого учиться.他总认为,无人可学习。


带Не的否定代词与带ни的否定代词有明显差别。试比较:


Я ничего не сказал.(我什么也没有说。)


Мне нечего было сказать. (我无话可说。)


Я никогда не читал.(我什么时候也没读过。)


Мне некогда читать.(我没工夫读。)


三、不定代词和否定代词没有性的范畴。带кто 的代词句法上当阳性词用,带что的代词当中性词用;И вышло это так, словно спрашивал не он, а кто-то другой.(好像提问的不是他,而是别人。)Смотрел ли кто-нибудь из вас в окно?(你们有谁向窗外望了吗?)Что-то странное и тоскливое в этих умных зорких глазах.(这双聪慧敏锐的眼睛流露出某种奇特的,悲哀的眼神)。


在不太严谨的言语中,当代词кто-нибудь, кто-либо与 кто-то指称女人时,限定词或谓语可用阴性形式:Была ли кто-нибудь из вас, хоть одна, довольна своей судьбой?(你们之中有谁,哪怕有一个人,满意自己的命运吗?)


带что的代词不表达数的对立,而只具有单数意义:что-то непо?нятное, нечто странное, ничто человеческое мне не чуждо.带кто的代词主要是表达单数意义,但某些情况下也允许句法上用复数形式指称若干人:По средам у ней собираются кое-кто из старых зна?комых.每逢星期三有些老相识在她家聚会。
 


 
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