帖子主题: 俄语考试:俄语做时间状语的名词(1)  

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在言语交际过程中,时间状语的表达手段是多种多样的。有些词汇其本身语义中并无时间意义,但在句中可作时间状语。这一词汇语义的“特殊”现象,往往构成学习俄语的难点。这些词多为名词,下面把其中的几组词加以概括说明。


1、表示自然现象的词,如:жара, дождь, мороз, ненастье, грязь, непогода,туман等。


上述名词常与в+四格或во время+二格连用,但погода 前有修饰词时,一般只与в+四格连用。例如:


1 ) Работа здесь идёт и в дождь и в жару. 无论是来天,还是酷暑,这里的工作都照常进行。


2) В грязь и непогоду здесь можно проехать только на лошади. 每当道路泥泞不堪或坏天气时,这里就只能骑马了。


3) Во время летнего зноя жизнь в городке замирает. 炎热的夏天里这座小城死一样的沉静。


4) Корабль погиб во время бури. 轮船遇上暴风雨沉没了。


5) В хорошую погоду детям не сидится дома. 天气好时,孩子们在家里呆不住。


2.表示“路”、“道路”等意义的名词,如:путь. дорога……通常用в+六格(в пути, в дороге)指长时间(乘某种交通工具或徒步)行进过程中:“(在)路上”、“(在)途中”。例如:


1) В пути я обычно много читаю. 旅途中我常找些书看。


2) В дороге ребёнок заболел. 孩子在路上病了。


3) В дороге мы переговаривали обо всем, что нас интересует. 一路上我们天南海北,尽兴地聊天。


По+三格常表示“在行进途中”发生什么事,因此常与表示具体方向、地点的名词连用。即“在去……路上”例如。


l) По дороге в Москву в поезде мне вспеинмлась наша первая встреча. 在去莫斯科的火车上,我情不自禁地想起我们初次见面时的情。


2) По пути в Псков я заехал к старому другу,在去普斯科夫的路上。我顺便看望了我的一位老朋友


обратный путь通常只与нa+六格连用,表示“在回来的路上”。如:


Его мы встретили дважды: и когда шли в школу, и на обратном我们遇见过他两久在去学校的路上和回来的路上.


3、表示“考察”,“远足”,“旅行”等意义的名词,如:экспедиция, поход, поездка, путешествие等,通常与修饰词连用,表示:“在……时”“在……途中”。常与во время+二格连用。例如:


1) Во время путешествия по ненаселенным землям Австралии ученый сделал интересные наблюдения. 在澳大利亚的无人烟地区考察时,科学家得出了许多有意思的观察结果。


2) Во время поездки по России я остановился в городе-герое Волгограде. 在俄罗斯旅行时,我到过英雄城市伏尔加格勒。


в +四格一般用在有一致定语的词组中,如: в эту поездку, в пер-вую экспедицию…… 例如:


1)В один из первых же походов в лес он увидел сразу несколько лосей. 初次去林中远足时,他便一下子见到好几只驼鹿。


2) В первую экспедицию мне не повезло: тяжело заболел, и меня отправили домой. 第一次出去考察时,我真不走运。生了一场大病,结果把我送回家了。


в+六格一般突出强调主体在整个途中的状态。


1) В экспедиции у меня всегда хорошее настроение.,每次出去考察,我的情绪总是很好。


2) В одном из походов моя подруга Женя одновременно была и врачом и поваром.在一次远足中,我的女友热尼妞既是医生,又是厨师。
 


 
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