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发表于:2005-11-23 16:39:09
READING PASSAGE 2

  You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-25 which are based on Reading Passage 2, "The Muang Faai Irrigation System of Northern Thailand".


  Questions 14-19


  Reading Passage 2 has 7 sections.


  Choose the most suitable heading for each section from the list of headings (A-L) below. Write the appropriate letter (A-L) in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.


  N.B. There are more headings than sections, so you will not use all of them.


  List of Headings


  A)        Rituals and beliefs


  B)        Topography of Northern Thailand


  C)        The forests of Northern Thailand


  D)        Preserving the system


  E)        Agricultural practices


  F)        Village life


  G)        Water distribution principles


  H)        Maintaining natural balances


  I)        Structure of the irrigation system


  J)        User's rights


  K)        User's obligations


  L)        Community control


  14.   Section 1


  15.   Section 2


  16.   Section 3


  17.   Section 4


  Answer


  Example     Section 5          A


  18.   Section 6


  19. Section 7


  THE MUANG FAAI IRRIGATION SYSTEM OF NORTHERN THAILAND


  SECTION 1


  Northern Thailand consists mainly of long mountain chains interspersed with valley bottoms where streams and rice fields dominate the landscape. Most of the remaining forests of the North are found at higher altitudes. The forests ensure regular seasonal rainfall for the whole area and at the same time moderate runoff, so that there is water throughout the year.


  SECTION 2


  The lowland communities have developed an agricultural system adapted to, and partially determining, the distinctive ecosystems of their areas. Practicing wet-rice agriculture in the valley-bottoms, the lowlanders also raise pigs, ducks and chickens and cultivate vegetable gardens in their villages further up the slopes. Rice, beans, corn and native vegetables are planted in hill fields above the villages, and wild vegetables and herbal medicines are gathered and wild game hunted in the forests higher up the hillsides. The forests also serve as grazing grounds for cows and buffalo, and are a source of wood for household utensils, cooking fuel, construction and farming tools. Fish are to be found in the streams and in the irrigation system and wet-rice fields, providing both food and pest control.


  SECTION 3


  In its essentials, a muang faai system consists of a small reservoir which feeds an intricate, branching network of small channels carrying water in carefully calibrated quantities through clusters of rice terraces in valley bottoms. The system taps into a stream above the highest rice field and, when there is sufficient water, discharges back into the same stream at a point below the bottom field. The water in the reservoir at the top, which is diverted into a main channel (Iam muang) and from there into the different fields, is slowed or held back not by an impervious dam, but by a series of barriers constructed of bunches of bamboo or saplings which allow silt, soil and sand to pass through.


  SECTION 4


  Water from the Iam muang is measured out among the farmers according to the extent of their rice fields and the amount of water available from the main channel. Also considered are the height of the fields, their distance from the main channel and their soil type. The size and depth of side-channels are then adjusted so that only the allocated amount of water flows into each farmer's field.


  SECTION 5


  Rituals and beliefs connected with muang faai reflect the villagers' submission to, respect for, and friendship with nature, rather than an attempt to master it . In mountains, forests, watersheds and water, villagers see things of great value and power. This power has a favourable aspect, and one that benefits humans. But at the same time, if certain boundaries are overstepped and nature is damaged, the spirits will punish humans. Therefore, when it is necessary to use nature for the necessities of life, villagers take care to inform the spirits what they intend to do, simultaneously begging pardon for their actions.


  SECTION 6


  Keeping a muang faai system going demands cooperation and collective management, sometimes within a single village, sometimes across three or four different subdistricts including many villages. The rules or common agreements arrived at during the yearly meeting amount to a social contract. They govern how water is to be distributed, how flow is to be controlled according to seasonal schedules, how barriers are to be maintained and channels dredged, how conflicts over water use are to be settled, and how the forest around the reservoir is to be preserved as a guarantee of a steady water supply and a source of materials to repair the system.


  SECTION 7


  The fundamental principle of water rights under muang faai is that everyone in the system must get enough to survive; while many patterns of distribution are possible, none can violate this basic tenet. On the whole, the systems also rest on the assumption that local water is common property. No one can take control of it by force, and it must be used in accord with the communal agreements. Although there are inequalities in land holding, no one has the right to an excessive amount of fertile land. The way in which many muang faai systems expand tends to reinforce further the claims of community security over those of individual entrepreneurship. In the gradual process of opening up new land and digging connecting channels, each local household often ends up with scattered holdings over the whole irrigation areas. Unlike modern irrigation systems, under which the most powerful people generally end up closest to the sources of water, this arrangement encourages everyone to take care that no part of the system is unduly favoured or neglected.


  Questions 20-23


  The chart below illustrates the agricultural system of the lowland communities.


  Select words from Reading Passage 2 to fill the spaces in the chart. Use UP TO THREE WORDS for each space. Write your answers in boxes 20-23 on your answer sheet.


  Area Activity


  Example


  Forests


  grazing cows, buffalo


  Forests


  Hill fields


  Villages


  Valley bottom gathering …… (20)  ……, hunting wild animals


  cultivating …… (21) ……


  raising …… (22) …… cultivating vegetables


  growing …… (23) ……


  Question 24


  From the list below, select the three main structures which constitute the muang faai irrigation system. Write the THREE appropriate letters, in any order, in box 24 on your answer sheet.


  A)        channels


  B)         saplings


  C)         dam


  D)         barriers


  E)         reservoir


  F)         water


  Question 25


  From the list below, select two criteria for allocating water to farmers. Write TWO appropriate letters, in any order, in box 25 on your answer sheet.


  A) field characteristics


  B)  social status


  C)  location of field


  D)  height of barriers


  E)  fees paid


  F)  water available

 
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发表于:2005-11-23 16:40:00
 READING PASSAGE 3

  You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 26-39 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

  THE ORIGINS OF INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES

  The traditional view of the spread of the Indo-European languages holds that an Ur-language, ancestor to all the others, was spoken by nomadic horsemen who lived in what is now western Russia north of the Black Sea near the beginning of the Bronze Age. As these mounted warriors roamed over greater and greater expanses, they conquered the indigenous peoples and imposed their own proto-Indo-European language, which in the course of succeeding centuries evolved in local areas into the European languages we know today. In recent years, however, many scholars, particularly archaeologists, have become dissatisfied with the traditional explanation.

  The starting point of the problem of the origins of Indo-European is not archaeological but linguistic. When linguists look at the languages of Europe, they quickly perceive that these languages are related. The connections can be seen in vocabulary, grammar and phonology (rules for pronunciation). To illustrate the numbers from one to ten in several Indo-European languages. Such a comparison makes it clear that there are significant similarities among many European languages and also Sanskrit, the language of the earliest literary texts of India, but that languages such as Chinese or Japanese are not members of the same family (see figure 1).

  ENGLISH OLD GERMAN LATIN GREEK SANSKRIT JAPANESE

  ONE

  TWO

  THREE

  FOUR

  FIVE

  SIX

  SEVEN

  EIGHT

  NINE

  TEN AINS

  TWAI

  THRIJA

  FIDWOR

  FIMF

  SAIHS

  SIBUM

  AHTAU

  NIUN

  TAIHUM UNUS

  DUO

  TRES

  QUATTOUR

  QUINQUE

  SEX

  SEPTEM

  OCTO

  NOVEM

  DECEM HEIS

  DUO

  TREIS

  TETTARES

  PENTE

  HEKS

  HEPTA

  OKTO

  ENNEA

  DEKA EKAS

  DVA

  TRYAS

  CATVARAS

  PANCA

  SAT

  SAPTA

  ASTA

  NAVA

  DASA HITOTSU

  FUTATSU

  MITTSU

  YOTTSU

  ITSUTSU

  MUTTSU

  NANATSU

  YATTSU

  KOKONOTSU

  TO

  FIGURE 1     Words for numbers from one to ten show the relations among Indo-European languages and the anomalous character of Japanese, which is not part of that family. Such similarities stimulated interest in the origins of Indo-European languages.

  The Romance languages served as the first model for answering the question. Even to someone with no knowledge of Latin, the profound similarities among Romance languages would have made it natural to suggest that they were derived from a common ancestor. On the assumption that the shared characteristics of these languages came from the common progenitor (whereas the divergences arose later. as the languages diverged),it would have been possible to reconstruct many of the characteristics of the original proto-language. In much the same way it became clear that the branches of the Indo-European family could be studied and a hypothetical family tree constructed, reading back to a common ancestor roto-Indo-European.

  This is the tree approach. The basic process represented by the tree model is one of divergence: when languages become isolated from one other, they differ increasingly, and dialects gradually differentiate until they become separate languages.

  Divergence is by no means the only possible tendency in language evolution. Johannes Schmidt, introduced a "wave" model in which linguistic changes spared like waves, leading ultimately to convergence; that is, growing similarity among languages that were initially quite different.

  Today, however, most linguists think primarily in terms of linguistic family trees. It is necessary to construct some explicit models of how language change might occur according to a process-based view. There are four main classes of models.

  The first is the process of initial colonization, by which an uninhabited territory becomes populated; its language naturally becomes that of the colonizers. Second are processes of divergence, such as the linguistic divergence arising form separation or isolation mentioned above in relation to early models of the Indo-European languages. The third group of models is based on processes of linguistic convergence. The wave model, formulated by Schmidt in the 1870's, is an example, but convergence methods have not generally found favour among linguists.

  Now, the slow and rather static operation of these processes is complicated by another factor: linguistic replacement. That factor provides the basis for a fourth class of models. In many areas of the world the languages initially spoken by the indigenous people have come to be replaced, fully or partially, by languages spoken by people coming from outside. Were it not for this large complicating factor, the world's linguistic history could be faithfully described by the initial distribution of Homo Sapiens, followed by the gradual, ling-term workings of divergence and convergence. So linguistic replacement also has a key role to play in explaining the origins of the Indo-European languages.

  Questions 26-32

  Below is a summary of part of Reading Passage 3,"The Origins of Indo-European Languages".

  Read the summary and then select the best word or phrase from the box below to fill each gap. according to the information in the Reading Passage. Write the corresponding letters (A-L) in boxes 26-32 on your answer sheet.

  N.B. There are more words and phrases than you will need to fill the gaps. You may use a word or phrase more than once if you wish.

  Summary-Models of Language Change

  Answer

  Example   There are four main models of language …… (Ex) ……           K

  The first is the process of initial colonization where an uninhabited territory becomes populated: the language spoken will therefore be that of the ……(26)……

  Processes of ……(27)…… occur where different dialects, and then languages, develop from a common ……(28)…… Many of the original characteristics of this common ancestor can be reconstructed from what we know of the present  separate ……(29)……

  Processes of linguistic ……(30)…… occur when languages which were initially different become more similar through contact. The wave model, formulated by Schmidt in the 1870s, is an example.

  The final model is that of linguistic ……(31)…… In this model, a new language replaces the language spoken by the ……(32)……

  A  colonizers G  languages

  B  invaders H  waves

  C  proto-language I  replacement

  D  indigenous people J  convergence

  E  linguists K  development

  F  model L  divergence

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发表于:2005-11-23 16:40:00
 Questions 33-36
  Several aspects of language development discussed in Reading Passage 3 are listed below.

  Match each aspect with the appropriate model from the box below, according to the information in the Reading Passage. Write the appropriate letter (A,B,C,or D) in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.

  Aspects of language development

  Answer

  Example    Population of territory           A

  33. "wave" model

  34. Romance languages

  35. proto-Indo-European

  36. European languages

  Models

  A   Colonization C   Convergence

  B   Divergence D   Replacement

  Questions 37-39

  Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS, according to the information in the Reading Passage. Write your answers in boxes 37-39 on your answer sheet.

  37. What are three ways in which the languages of Europe are related?

  38. On what basis does the author decide that Chinese and Japanese are not related to European languages?

  39. According to the tree model, what was the original proto-language for English?

  1.   E

  2.   I

  3.   F

  4.   A

  5.   C

  6.   H

  7.   circadian rhythms.

  8.   (an) early lunch

  9.   opportunities // challenges // challenges and opportunities

  10.  (likely) immediate future // immediate past

  11.  himself // herself

  12.  others // other people // outside causes // faults of others

  13.  (its) appropriate cause(s)

  Reading Passage 2                The Muang Faai Irrigation System ……

  14.   B

  15.   E

  16.   I

  17.   G

  18.   L

  19.   J

  20.   two correct out of :   vegetables, herbal medicines, herbs, wood

  21.   two correct out of :   rice, beans, corn, (native) vegetables

  22.   two correct out of :   pigs, ducks, chickens

  23.   (wet) rice / (fish)

  24.   E, A, D [any order]

  25.   Two correct out of :   F, A, C [any order]

  Reading Passage 3           The Origins of Indo-European Languages

  26.   A

  27.   L

  28.   C

  29.   G

  30.   J

  31.   I

  32.   D

  33.   C

  34.   B

  35.   D

  36.   B

  37.   vocabulary, grammar, phonology [all three must be correct]

  38.   comparison of words/vocabulary/numbers/features // compare (the) words

  39.   proto-Indo-European
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