)Powers of the Senate: the Senate has the power to ①introduced legislation on any subject except revenue bills (除了税收法案). It has the authority to ②confirmor reject predidential appointments (总统任命) of high officials as well as the U.S. foreign treaties. ③Its chairman is the Vice President.
7)The judicial system has evolved into the present structure: According to the Constitution, the judicial power of the U.S shall be vested in one SupremeCourt. The judicial system has evolved into the present structure: the Supreme Court, 11 court of appeals, 91 district courts, and 3 courts of special jurisdiction . U.S.judges are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
8)The two-party system and the characteristics of the two major parties
①the two-party system:the two party system means that the two major political parties — now the Democrats and the Republicans — compete with each other to dominate politics at the federal, state, and local levels.
②the characteristics of the two major parties:The two major parties are not very different today. They are two coalitions of interests and interest groups(利益集团的联合). There is no strict partydiscipline(党纪). One does not have to apply or go through necessary formalities to become a member of either party. But there are some differences between them. The Democrats traditionally favour government intervention (主张政府干涉经济)while the Republicans stress the role of the market (市场作用)more. On social issue the Democrats support a strong social security system (社会安全保障体制) while the Republicans oppose large governmental social security programs. Inspite of these differenes, the two parties both believe in individualism, defend capitalism anduphold private ownership of means of production(坚持生产资料私有制) .