帖子主题: [经验分享] 英语中的主动表被动  

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在英语学习中,有许多地方用主动表被动,这对许多中国学生来说是一个难点,常常让他们感到不好学,不好掌握,在此小结一下:
1. 连系动词(如look, sound, smell, feel, taste, prove等)要用主动表被动,因为连系动词为不及物动词,它们没有被动语态形式。如:
The building looks very beautiful. 这座建筑看上去很美。
Your idea proved to be wrong. 你的想法证实是错的。
2. 当open, close, shut, lock, move, read, wash, clean, cook, cut, wear, carry 等用作不及物动词且表示主语的某种属性时,通常用主动形式表示被动意义:
The door won’t shut. 这门关不上。
The book sells quickly. 这书销售得快。
3. 有的动词本身含有被动意味,通常用主动形式来表示被动含义。如:
Her coat caught on the nail. 她的大衣被钉子钩住了。
Her eyes filled with tears. 她眼睛里充满了眼泪。
4. 不定式to blame, to let 用作表语时,通常要用主动表被动。如:
Who is to blame? 该怪谁呢?
The house is to let. 此屋出租。
5. 某些“be+形容词+to do”结构中的不定式通常要用主动形式表示被动意义。如:
The book is difficult to understand. 这书很难懂。
The music isn’t pleasant to listen to. 这音乐不好听。
The picture is interesting to look at. 这幅画看起来挺有趣的。
注:这类结构的特点是句子主语就是其后不定式的逻辑宾语,按理说其中的不定式要用被动形式,但习惯上却要用主动表被动。这类形容词常见的有convenient, dangerous, difficult, easy, hard, impossible, interesting, nice, pleasant, safe, tough, tricky, unpleasant 等。
6. 不定式用于某些动词(如have, have got, get, want, need等)的宾语后作定语时,如果不定式的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。如:
Do you have time to help us? 你有时间帮助我们吗?
I have some clothes to wash. 我有一些衣服要洗。
I want something to drink. 我想喝点什么。
注:若不定式的逻辑主语不是句子的主语,则应用被动式,比较:
I have something to type. 我有些东西要打(字)。(指自己打字)
I have something to be typed. 我有些东西要打(字)。(指请人打字)
7. 在 too…to do sth 和…enough to do sth这两个结构中,若句子主语与其后不定式为to do sth被动关系,则该不定式通常用主动形式表示被动意义(有时也可直接用被动式)。如:
The writing is too faint to read. 这笔迹太模糊,看不清。
These boxes are not strong enough to use [to be used] as a platform. 这些箱子不够牢,不能用作站台。
8. be worth 后的动名词要用主动表被动。如:
This movie is worth seeing. 这部影片值得一看。
She’s not worth getting angry with. 犯不上跟她生气。
注:与worth相似的worthy却不一样,其后不接动名词而接不定式(若接动名词则其前应有介词of),且要用被动式表示被动含义:
This book is worthy to be read [of being read]. 这本书值得一读。
9. 在need, want, require等少数表示“需要”的动词后的动名词用主动形式表示被动意义。如:
The house needs cleaning. 房子需要打扫了。
These children require looking after. 这些孩子需要照看。
This wall requires repairing. 这面墙需要修理了。
注:该结构中的动名词改用不定式则要用被动式表被动。如:
The house needs to be cleaned. 房子需要打扫了。
These children require to be looked after. 这些孩子需要照看。
 

 成功不在难易,而在于是否采取行动。
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发表于:2017-11-23 11:38:46
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回复:楼主*shixuea*的帖子

艰难的四级考试经验

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回复:3楼houxue6666的帖子

  今天我只想在这把我这几年考四级的经历写下来,供大家参考,并没有炫耀之意,只是很想说是,咬着牙坚持住!

  听力:反复听真题,听的时候遇到听不出的就先空着,等听完,找到听不出的那个单词或句子再听,想想自己为什么会听不出来,是因为听的语音或是因为没有见过这个单词,等到再听的时候就要写得出这些曾经是你的障碍的地方!不是只听完这一遍就行了,而是反复的听呀听的。把语感培养出来。

  阅读:阅读是分数的,以前我的方法不对,就是读一遍之后就瞎选,凭记忆选,后来看到老师说要找到相关地方,后来试了试还真是的,正确率提高了好多,首先把题目大致的看一遍,心里或多或少有个数,看文章,遇到理解不了的,千万别在那反复读反复看,要舍得忽略看不懂那个点,可能你看完后面,那个难点会迎刃而解。

  词汇:单词记忆相当令我头疼,我曾经一天花5个小时记单词,但效果甚微,有时感到头昏脑胀,根本记不下来,我向前辈讨教,他们建议我多做阅读,在阅读中背单词,于是开始找一些阅读资料,但因为词汇量不够,一篇文章看下来要查十多次词典,相当的艰苦,完全失去了阅读兴趣。后来在一个已经过了六级的老乡建议下,用了一下“奇迹英语背单词8.0”软件。这套软件刚开始使用没什么特别,我几乎都放弃了,但坚持了两天左右,它的威力终于显现出来,他能分析我记忆遗忘点,即时的让我复习即将遗忘的单词。这个曾经是我背单词中的难点啊。

  完型填空:在练其他的时候其实这个也被练过了

  作文:我的是老办法了,就是买了一本作文书,我买的那本是很古老的一本了,大一的时候就买的了,跟着他的题目离考试还有一个月的时候就每天做2篇,先自己写一遍,刚开始的时候简直就是残不忍睹,几句话而已,一篇完整的文章也写不出来,信心一点也没有,可没办法呀,硬着头皮写呀,写完后又对照例文,把好的词、句用铅笔勾下来背呀,多练了几天后慢慢的就写得出来了,不敢说写得很好,但至少不会让你倒扣分呀

  以上就是我过四级的一点点心得,只想说对还没有过的朋友说,没事的,这次不行还有下次,相信自己你是最棒的!

原文摘自《厚学网 www.houxue.com


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