SECTION 11 Use of English
( 15 minutes)
Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word or phrase for each numbered blank and mark A, B,C, or D on your ANSWER SHEET.
It is an unfortunate fact of today's life that most people are growing up unable to see the stars.
The prime night sky exists only 26pictures. This is true not only in cities and suburbs, but al-so in 27areas. We have lost our view of the stars and 28our nighttime environment as well.
Such a loss29be acceptable if light pollution were the inevitable price of progress, 30it is not. Most sky glow is 31 . It comes mainly from lighting sources that do little to increase32 safety, security or utility. They produce only glare,33over one billion dollars annually in the U.S. alone.
34science, the impact has been even more dramatic. Scientists require observations of extremely faint objects that can only be 35 with advanced devices at sites 36of air pollu-tion and urban sky glow. For example, some images of the objects can 37information about faraway comers of the universe, helping us understand the way in 38our world was actually formed.39 , the light from these objects can be lost at the very end of its 40 in the glare of our own sky.
Reducing light pollution is not difficult. It 41that public officials and citizens be 42of the problem and act to counter it. As 43people can help reduce sky glow just by 44 lighting only when necessary.
The stars above us are a 45heritage. We must do our best to preserve it.
26. A. on B. from C. in D. at "
27. A. local B. rural C. industrial D. scenic
28. A. mined B. reduced C. dirtied D. wasted
29. A. should B. may C. might D. will
30. A. but B. as C. because D. though
31. A. inadequate B. invisible C. unpredictable D. unnecessary
32. A. nighttime B. lifetime C. peacetime D. longtime
33. A. costing B. making C. putting D. raising
34. A. At B. From C. For D. Over
35. A. accepted B. made C. pushed D. sent
36. A. worthy B. typical C. critical D. free
37. A. collect B. offer C. share D. save
38. A. that B. what C. when D. which
39. A. Besides B. Instead C. Therefore D. Yet
40. A. march B. visit C.journey D. flight
41. A. indicates B. proves C. requires D. shows
42. A. ashamed B. aware C. independent D. tired
43. A. individuals B. natives C. residents D. victims
44. A. fixing B. providing C. taking D. using
45. A. cosfless
B. priceless C. valueless D. worthless
参考译文
如今大部分人在生活中很难看到天空中的繁星,这真是一件憾事。星光灿烂的夜空只有在图片里才能见到。不仅城市和郊区是这样,连乡村也是如此。我们不但看不到星星,同样这也污染了夜空的环境。如果光污染是人类进步所不可避免要付出的代价,那么这种损失或许可以被接受,但事实并非如此。大多数人工白昼是不必要的,因为它们并非是用来增加夜晚安全或照明的,它们只是发出耀眼的光。仅在美国一年就在此项上花费十亿多美元。光污染给科学带来的影响更加严重。科学家们需要用精密仪器观察极其细微的物体,这种观测需在没有空气污染和城市灯光的环境下才能进行。例如,一些物体的影像可以提供宇宙遥远角落的信息,帮助我们了解地球实际形成的方式。然而,这些物体发出的光线可能在到达地球时被人工光源所覆盖而消失。减少光污染并不难,需要政府官员和公民们意识到这个问题并面对它。就个人而言,仅在必要时使用照明,就能有助于大幅减少人工白昼现象。闪耀在我们上空的星星是无价的文明遗产,我们必须尽我们所能去保护它。
26.C【精析】本题考查介词词义辨析。on“在…之上”;from“来自…”;in“在…里”;at“在(场合)”。根据句意,应是“在图片里”,C选项符合题意,故选C.
27.B【精析】本题考查形容词词义辨析。local“当地的”;rural“乡村的”;industrial“工业的”;scenic“风景优美的”。前文提到城市、郊区,此处应为乡村,rural符合题意,故选B.
28.C【精析】本题考查动词词义辨析。ruin“毁坏”;reduce“减少”;dirty“污染”;waste“浪费”。此处为污染夜空,C选项符合题意,故选C.
29.C【精析】本题考查的是情态动词用法。此句中的if是非真实条件句,是一种虚拟和假设,如果光污染是进步所必须付出的代价,那么这种损失或许可以接受,might符合题意,故选C.
30.A【精析】本题考查的是上下文语义的衔接。此句是虚拟,事实并非如此,所以应用转折,故选A.、
31.D【精析】本题考查形容词辨析。inadequate“不恰当的”;invisible“看不见的”;unpredictable“不可预知的”;unnecessary“不必要的”。由上下文可知,此处应表达的是许多人工照明其实是不必要的,unnecessary符合题意,故选D.
32.A【精析】本题考查名词词义辨析。由上文说人工白昼是不必要的,下文解释原因,“它们并非是用来增加夜晚安全或照明的,它们只是发出耀眼的光”。nighttime“夜晚”;lifetime“一生”;peace—time“和平时期”;longtime“长时间”。由题意可知A选项正确,故选A.
33.A【精析】本题考查动词词义辨析。cost“花费”;make“制作”;put“放置”;raise“提高”。此处是说花费美国十亿美金,故选A.
34.C【精析】本题考查介词词义辨析。at“在(场合)”;from“来自…”;over“超过,在…之上”;for“对…来说”。此处是对于科学来说,for符合题意,故选C.
35.B 【精析】本题考查动词搭配。此处的动词是跟前面的observations搭配的,只有make符合,故选B.
36.D【精析】本题考查固定搭配。四个选项中,只有free可以和后面的of搭配,表示“没有、免除”,故选D.
37.B【精析】本题考查动词词义辨析。collect“收集”;offer“提供”;share“分享”;save“保存”。此处意为一些物体的影像可以为研究提供信息,0ffer符合题意,故选B.
38.D【精析】本题考查定语从句的引导词。此引导词要修饰先行词way,前面又有in搭配,应为in which表示一种方式,故选D.
39.D【精析】本题考查连词用法。根据上下文意思,此处应为转折,besides“而且”;instead“而不是”;therefore“因此”;yet“然而”。故选D.
40.C【精析】本题考查名词词义辨析。march“行进”;visit“参观”;joumey“旅途”;flight“飞行”。此处意为这些物体的光线可能在到达地球的途中被覆盖,只有journey有旅途之意,故选C.
41.C【精析】本题考查动词词义辨析。此处意为要减少光污染需要政府官员和公民去解决。indicate“指出”;prove“证明”;require“要求”;show“显示”。故选C.
42.B【精析】本题考查固定搭配。此处意为官员和公民要意识到光污染的问题。be aware of“意识到”,故选B.
43.A【精析】本题考查名词词义辨析。前面说政府官员和公民要意识到光污染的问题,此处是说作为个人,应该怎么做。individual“个人”;native“本地人”;resident“居民”;victim“受害者”。故选A.
44.D【精析】本题考查动词词义辨析。fix“修理”;provide“提供”;take“带走”;use“使用”。根据句意,此处意为只在必要时使用照明,故选D.
45.B 【精析】本题考查形容词词义辨析。costless“不花钱的”;value—less“不值钱的”;worthless“无用的”;priceless“无价的”。由下句“我们必须尽我们所能去保护它”可知,此处意为无价的文明遗产,故选B.