1 The union representative put across her argument very effectively.
A explained B invented C considered D accepted
2 He talks tough but has a tender heart.
A heavy B strong C kind D wild
3 It is no use debating the relative merits of this policy.
A making B taking C discussing D expecting
4 Our statistics show that we consume all that we are capable of producing
A waste B buy C use D sell
5 The fuel tanks had a capacity of 140 liters.
A function B ability C power D volume
6 Our lives are intimately bound up with theirs.
A tensely B nearly C carefully D closely
7 Her faith upheld her in times of sadness
A supported B excited C inspired D directed
8 The book provides a concise analysis of the country’s history.
A clean B perfect C real D brief
9 It is laid down in the regulations that all members must carry their membership cards at all times.
A suggested B warned C stated D confirmed
10 The council meeting terminated at 2 o’clock
A began B continued C ended D resumed
11 A red flag was placed there as a token of danger.
A sign B substitute C proof D target
12 However bad the situation is, the majority is unwilling to risk change.
A reluctant B eager C pleased D angry
13 It has been said that the Acts provided a new course of action and did not merely regulate or enlarge an old one.
A limit B control C replace D offset
14 The secretary is expected to explore ideas for post-war reconstruction of the area.
A deny B investigate C stress D create
15 The steadily rising cost of labor on the waterfront has greatly increased the cost of shipping cargo by water.
A gradually B suddenly C excessively D exceptionally
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后列出7个句子，请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断。如果该句提供的是正确信息，请在答题卡上把A涂黑；如果该句提供的是错误信息，请在答题卡上把B涂黑；如果该句的信息文章中没有提及，请在答题卡上把C涂黑Principles of Governing Persuasion
If leadership consists of getting thing done through others, then persuasion is one of the leader’s essential tools. Many executives have assumed that this tool is beyond their grasp, available only to the charismatic(有魅力的) and the eloquent. Over the past several decades, though, experimental psychologists have learned which methods reliably lead people to concede, comply, or change. Their research shows that persuasion is governed by several principles that can be taught and applied.
The first principle is that people are more likely to follow someone who is similar to them than someone who is not. Wise managers, then, ask peers to help make their cases. Second, people are more willing to cooperate with those who are not only like them but who like them, as well. So it’s worth the time to uncover real similarities and offer genuine praise.
Third, experiments confirm the intuitive truth that people tend to treat you the way you treat them. It’s sound policy to do a favor before seeking one. Fourth, individuals are more likely to keep promises they make voluntarily and clearly. The message for managers here is to get commitments in writing. Fifth, studies show that people really do defer to (服从) experts. So before they attempt to exert influence, executives should take pains to establish their own expertise and not assume that it’s self-evident. Finally, people want more of a commodity when it’s scarce; it follows, then, that exclusive information is more persuasive than widely available data.
16 Experiments have confirmed the assumption of many executives.
A right B Wrong C Not mentioned
17 People are more likely to cooperate with those who like them.
A right B Wrong C Not mentioned
18 Managers do not employ those who are quite different from them.
A right B Wrong C Not mentioned
19 There is no need for a manager to find out the merits of his employees.
A right B Wrong C Not mentioned
20 Experiments have shown that, contrary to our expectation, people tend to treat you the way you treat them.
A right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21 There are as many wise managers as there are stupid ones.
A right B Wrong C Not mentioned
22 Exclusive information is more persuasive than widely known data.
A right B Wrong C Not mentioned
（2）第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确选项，分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。Keeping Cut Flowers
1 While everybody enjoys fresh cut flowers around his house, few people know how to keep them for as long as possible. This may be done by keeping in mind a few simple facts.
2 An important thing to remember about cut flowers is that they are sensitive to temperature. For example, studies have shown that cut carnations(康乃馨) retain their freshness eight times longer when kept at 12oC than when kept at 260c. Keeping freshly harvested flowers at the right temperatures is probably the most important aspect of flower care.
3 Flowers are not intended by nature to live very long. Their biological purpose is simply to attract birds or insects, such as bees, for pollination (授粉). After that, they quickly dry up and die. The process by which flowers consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide (二氧化碳), called respiration (呼吸), generates the energy the flower needs to give the flower its shape and colour. The making of seeds also depends on this energy. While all living things respire, flowers have a high level of respiration. A result of all this respiration is heat, and for flowers the level of heat relative to the mass of the flower is very high. Respiration also brings about the eventual death of the flower. Thus the greater the level of respiration, the sooner the flower dies.
4 How, then, to control the rate at which flowers die? By controlling respiration. How is respiration controlled? By controlling temperature. We know that respiration produces heat, but the reverse is also true. Thus by maintaining low temperatures, respiration is reduced and the cut flower will age more slowly.
5 Another vital factor in keeping cut flowers is the quality of the water in which they are placed. Flowers find it difficult to “drink” water that is dirty or otherwise polluted. Even when water looks and smells clean, it almost certainly contains harmful substances that can endanger the flowers. To rid the water of these unwanted substances, household chlorine bleach (含氯漂白剂) can be used in small quantities. It is recommended that 15 drops of chlorine bleach(at 4% solution) be added to each litre of water. The water and solution should also be replaced each day.
23 Paragraph 2__________________
24 Paragraph 3__________________
25 Paragraph 4__________________
26 Paragraph 5__________________
27 A few simple facts will help you keep cut flowers_______________
28 Respiration plays a key role________________
29 The aging of cut flowers can be slowed down_________________
30 Another important way to prolong the life of cut flowers is ____________________
第一篇 “Salty” Rice Plant Boosts Harvests
British scientists are breeding a new generation of rice plants that will be able to grow in soil containing salt water. Their work may enable abandoned farms to become productive once more.
Tim Flowers and Tony Yeo, from Sussex University’s School of Biological Sciences, have spent several years researching how crops, such as rice, could be made to grow in water that has become salty.
The pair have recently begun a three-year programme， funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council， to establish which genes enable some plants to survive salty conditions. The aim is to breed this capability into crops， starting with rice.
It is estimated that each year more than 10m hectares（公顷） of agricultural land are lost because salt gets into the soil and stunts（妨碍生长）plants. The problem is caused by several factors. In the tropics， mangroves（红树林） that create swamps（沼泽） and traditionally formed barriers to sea water have been cut down. In the Mediterranean， a series of droughts have caused the water table to drop， allowing sea water to seep（渗透）in. in Latin America， irrigation often causes problems when water is evaporated（蒸发） by the heat， leaving salt deposits behind.
Excess salt then enters the plants and prevents them functioning normally. Heavy concentrations of minerals in the plants stop them drawing up the water they need to survive.
To overcome these problems， Flowers and Yeo decided to breed rice plants that take in very little slat and store what they do absorb in cells that do not affect the plants‘ growth. They have started to breed these characteristics into a new rice crop， but it will take about eight harvests before the resulting seeds are ready to be considered for commercial use.
Once the characteristics for surviving salty soil are known， Flowers and Yeo will try to breed the appropriate genes into all manners of crops and plants. Land that has been abandoned to nature will then be able to bloom again， providing much needed food in the poorer countries of the world.
31 Which of the following statements about Flowers and Yeo is true？
A They are students at Sussex University.
B They are rice breeders.
C They are husband and wife.
D They are colleagues at an institution of higher learning.
32 Flowers and Yeo have started a programme
A to find ways to prevent water pollution.
B to identify genes that promote growth in salty soil.
C to breed rice plants that taste salty.
D to find ways to remove excessive salt from soil.
33 Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of the problem discussed in the passage？
A Natural barriers to sea water have been destroyed.
B the water table has gone down after droughts.
C Sea level has been continuously rising.
D Evaporation of water leaves salt behind
34 The word “affect” in Paragraph 6 could be best replaced by
35 The attitude of the author towards the research project is
第二篇 Ford’s Assembly Line
When it comes to singling out those who have made a difference in all our lives， you cannot overlook Henry Ford. A historian a century from now might well conclude that it was Ford who most influenced all manufacturing， everywhere， even to this day， by introducing a new way to make cars-one， strange to say， that originated in slaughterhouses（屠宰场）。
Back in the early 1900‘s， slaughterhouses used what could have been called a “disassembly line”。 Ford reversed this process to see if it would speed up production of a part of an automobile engine called a magneto. Rather than have each worker completely assemble a magneto， one of its elements was placed on a conveyer， and each worker， as it passed， added another component to it， the same one each time. Professor David Hounshell of the University of Delaware， an expert on industrial development， tells what happened.
“The previous day， workers carrying out the entire process had averaged one assembly every 20 minutes. But on that day， on the line， the assemble team averaged one every 13 minutes and 10 seconds per person.”
Within a year， the time had been reduced to five minutes. In 1913， Ford went all the way. Hooked together by ropes， partially assembled vehicles were towed（拖，拉） past workers who completed them one piece at a time. It hasn‘t long before Ford was turning out several hundred thousand cars a year， a remarkable achievement then. And so efficient and economical was this new system that he cut the price of his cars in half， to $260， putting them within reach of all those who， up until that time， could not afford them. Soon， auto makers the world over copied him. In fact， he encouraged them to do so by writing a book about all of his innovations， entitled Today and Tomorrow. The Age of the Automobile has arrived. Today， aided by robots and other forms of automation（自动化）， everything from toasters to perfumes is made on assembly lines.
36 Which of the following statements about Henry Ford is NOT true?
A He introduced a new way of production.
B He influenced all manufacturing.
C He inspired other auto makers.
D He changed a historian’s mind.
37 The writer mentions” slaughterhouses” because they were the places where
A Ford’s assembly line originated
B Ford made his first car.
C Ford readjusted the assembly line.
D Ford innovated the disassembly line.
38 A magneto is a technical term for
A an automobile.
B a production line
C a part of an automobile engine.
D a disassembly line
39 the phrase” turning out” in the last paragraph could be best replaced by
A “ producing”
B “ selling”
40 The invention of the assembly line enabled Henry Ford
A to create more jobs for the unemployed
B to write a book on history
C to reduce the price of his cars to $260
D to cut the production of his cars by 50%
Play is the principal business of childhood, and in recent years research has shown the great importance of play in the development of a human being. From earliest infancy, every child needs opportunity and the right materials for play, and the main tools of play are toys. Their main function is to suggest, encourage and assist play. To succeed in this they must be good toys, which children will play with often, and will come back to again and again. Therefore it is important to choose suitable toys for different stages of a child’s development.
In recent years research on infant development has shown that the standard a child is likely to reach, within the range of his inherited abilities, is largely determined in the first three years of his life. So a baby’s ability to profit from the right play materials should not be underestimated. A baby who is encouraged and stimulated, talked to and shown things and played with, has the best chance of growing up successfully.
In the next stage, from three to five years old, curiosity knows no bounds. Every type of suitable toy should be made available to the child, for trying out, experimenting and learning, for discovering his own particular ability. Bricks and jigsaws（七巧板）and construction toys; painting, scribbling(涂鸦) and making things; sand and water play; toys for imaginative and pretending play; the first social games for learning to play and get on with others.
Bt the third stage of play development-from five to seven or eight years-the child is at school. But for a few more years play is still the best way of learning, at home or at school. It is easier to see which type of toys the chills most enjoys.
Until the age of seven or eight, play and work mean much the same to a child. But once reading has been mastered, then books and school become the main source of learning. Toys are still interesting and valuable, they lead on to new hobbies, but their significance has changed-to a child of nice or ten years, toys and games mean, as to adults, relaxation and fun.
41 The passage tells us that as a child grows up
A he should be allowed to choose his own toys.
B he should be given identical toys.
C he should be given different toys.
D he should be given fewer and fewer toys.
42 According to the passage, the abilities a child has inherited from his parents
A determine his character
B will not change after the age of three.
C partly determine the standard he is likely to reach.
D to a large extent determine the choice of toys.
43 Who have the best chance of growing up successfully?
A Those who tend to overeat
B Those who are given a lot of toys.
C Those who are given toys, talked to and played with.
D Those who can share their toys with their playmates.
44 We learn from the passage that a child has boundless curiosity
A when he is two
B when he is around four.
C when he is six.
D when he is eight.
45 The passage is mainly about
A the importance of pre-school education
B the importance of schooling.
C the role of play in a child’s development
D the choice of toys for adolescents.
Science and Technology
There is a difference between science and technology._________(46). Science has to do with discovering the facts and relationships between observable phenomena in nature and with establishing theories that serve to organize these facts and relationships; technology has to do with tools, techniques, and procedures for applying the findings of science.________(47)
Progress in science excludes the human factor. Scientists, who seek to understand the universe and know the truth within the highest degree of accuracy and certainty, cannot pay attention to their own or other people’s likes or dislikes or to popular ideas about the fitness of things._________(48). But even an unpleasant truth is more than likely to be useful; besides we have the choice of refusing to believe it ! But hardly so with technology; we do not have the choice of refusing to hear the sound produced by a supersonic(超音速的) aircraft flying overhead; we cannot refuse to breathe polluted air._________(49)The purpose of technology is to serve people-people in general, not merely some people; and future generations, not merely those who presently wish to gain advantage for themselves.
__________(50) Many people blame technology itself for widespread pollution, resource depletion(枯竭) and even social decay in general-so much so that the promise of technology is “ obscured “. That promise is a cleaner and healthier world. If wise applications of science and technology do not lead to a better world, what else will?
A Another distinction between science and technology has to do with the progress in each.
B Unlike science, progress in technology must be measured in terms of the human factor.
C What scientists discover may shock or anger people ---as did Darwin’s theory of evolution.
D Science and technology are different.
E We are all familiar with the improper use of technology.
F Science is a method of answering theoretical questions; technology is a method of solving practical problems.
Cost as a Factor in Supply
In a purely competitive market, the supplier of goods and services has no control over the market price, because he produces too little to influence market conditions. With no difference between his products and the products________(51) his competitors, he will sell nothing if he charges above the market price and he will sell all if he charges at or __________(52) the market price. However, in considering the price, he must take the ____________(53)of production into consideration. There are times when he may be willing to sell below his cost. This might happen when prices tumble for__________(54) he believes will be a short time. However, no business person can __________(55)to lose money for a prolonged period. He must be constantly __________(56)of his costs in relation to the market price if he is to competes successfully and earn a profit.
Many people have the impression that as production increases, costs per unit decrease._________(57)mass production has made this true in certain industries and at certain levels of production,________(58) logic and practical experiences have shown that costs per unit begin to rise beyond a certain level of production. Some economists_________(59)to this principle as the law of increasing costs.
The reason costs rise as production goes up is __________(60). However, it is easy to recognize that as production goes up, the need for additional factors of production will also grow,__________(61)competitive bidding in the marketplace for the factors of production. If a producer needs___________(62) skilled labor to produce more, and none of this labor is unemployed, the producer will have to get __________(63)from other sources. This can be done by ___________(64)higher wages. Higher bidding would also apply to the other factors of production. We must also recognize that not all labor is equally productive, ___________(65)not all land is equally fertile and not all ore(矿石)is equally rich in the mineral wanted.
51 A to B at C of D on
52 A below B beneath C over D above
53 A price B cost C worth D profit
54 A that B why C what D if
55 A afford B pretend C offer D try
56 A sure B afraid C aware D suspicious
57 A Because B Since C When D While
58 A both B neither C none D any
59 A resort B refer C turn D attend
60 A clear B simple C difficult D complex
61 A bringing B resulting in C including D carrying out
62 A less B numerous C more D many
63 A them B these C it D those
64 A offering B cutting C reducing D having
65 A as if B just as C because D while
1A 2C 3C 4C 5D 6D 7A 8D 9C 10C 11A 12A 13B 14B 15A
16B 17A 18C 19B 20B 21C 22A 23D 24C 25A 26E 27D 28B 29E 30F
31D 32B 33C 34A 35A 36D 37A 38C 39A 40C 41C 42C 43C 44B 45C
46F 47A 48C 49B 50E51C 52A 53B 54C 55A 56C 57D 58A 59B 60D 61B
62C 63C 64A 65B