1．The union representative put across her argument very effectively.
2.He talks tough but has a tender heart.
3.It is no use debating the relative merits of this policy.
4.Our statistics show that we consume all that we are capable of producing.
5.The fuel tanks had a capacity of 140 liters.
6.Our lives are intimately bound up with theirs.
7.Her faith upheld her in times of sadness.
8.The book provides a concise analysis of the country’s history.
9.It is laid down in the regulations that all members must carry their membership cards at all times.
10.The council meeting terminated at 2 o’clock.
11.A red flag was placed there as a token of danger.
12.However bad the situation is , the majority is unwilling to risk change.
13.It has been said that the Acts provided a new course of action and did not merely regulate or enlarge an old one.
14.The secretary is expected to explore ideas for post-war reconstruction of the area.
15.The steadily rising cost of labor on the waterfront has greatly increased the cost of shipping cargo by water.
Using HIV Virus to Cure Cancer
Scientists are planning to use human immunodeficiency(免疫缺陷)virus(HIV), one of mankind’s most feared viruses, as a carrier of genes which can fight cancer and a range of diseases that cannot be cured. The experts say HIV has an almost perfect ability to avoid the body’s immune(免疫的)defenses, making it ideal for carrying replacement genes into patients’ bodies, according to the Observer.
A team at the California-based Salk Institute, one of the world’s leading research centers on biological sciences, has created a special new breed of HIV and has started negotiations with the U>S> Food and Drug Administration(FDA)to begin clinical gene therapy(治疗) trials this year. The first trials are expected to involve patients suffering from cancers that cannot be cured by surgery although project leader Professor Inder Verma said the HIV technique would have” far wider applications”.
The plan remains very likely to cause controversy since it involves making use of a virus which has caused more than 22 million deaths around the world in the past two decades. Verma said that the idea of using HIV for a beneficial purpose was “shocking” but the fierce nature of HIV had disappeared by having all six of the potentially deadly genes removed.
Illnesses such as various cancers are caused when a gene in a patient’s body fails to work properly. In the past two years, breakthroughs in genetics(遗传学)have led gene therapy scientists to try and replace the genes that do not function normally.
Unfortunately, the body’s immune defenses have been known to attack the modified genes and make them lose their effects before they can start their task and progress in the field has been held up by the lack of a suitable carrier.
The HIV virus has the ability to escape from, and then destroy, the immune defense cells designed to protect our bodies and this makes it attractive to scientists as a way of secretly conveying replacement genes into patients’ bodies.
1 FDA has approved the plan of using HIV to cure cancer in humans.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
2 The idea of using HIV for a beneficial purpose has been widely accepted.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
3 HIV can be safely used to cure cancer only if the deadly genes have been removed.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
4 The HIV virus is an excellent warrior to fight the body’s immune cells.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
5 Other countries are also expected to begin clinical gene therapy trials soon.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
6 It is the lack of money that has held up the progress in using replacement genes to cure cancer.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
7 The HIV virus has caused more deaths in developed countries.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
Exercising Your Memory
1 Aging does not mean a dramatic decline in memory power, unless you help it help by letting your mind go.
2 That's not to say that memory doesn't change throughout life. Researchers divide memory into categories based on the length of time when memories are stored. One system divides it up as short-term (less than one minute; remembering a telephone number while you dial, for instance), long-term (over a period of years) and very long-term memory (over a lifetime).
3 Short-term memory isn't mastered until about age 7, but after that you never lose it. Long-term memory, however, involves more effort and skill and changes through life. It's not until the early teens that most people develop a mature long-term memory.
4 First, we must get information into our heads through learning. Learning strategies can get rusty (生锈的，迟钝的) without constant use. High school and college students, who are forced to repeatedly exercise their long-term memory abilities (at least long-term enough to get them through a final exam), usually do well on memory tests. The longer you stay in school, the more chance you get to polish your learning skills. It's no wonder that more highly educated people have more effective memory skills throughout life.
5 Although older people in general learn somewhat more slowly than they did when younger, a dramatic difference exists between those who stay intellectually active -- reading, discussing, taking classes, thinking -- and those who do not. Giving the brain a daily workout is just as important as exercising your muscles. Brainwork keeps your learning strategies in shape, and this helps your memory to function at full capacity.
6 The next part of a healthy long-term memory is retention（保持力，记忆力）, the ability to store what you have learned. Memory researchers still do not know whether memories are lost -- whether they still exist in the brain nut our mental searching cannot turn them up, or have disappeared entirely as our brain ages.
7 The third necessity for memory is recall, the ability to mind the memories we have stored. Again, while aging has widely different effects on the recall abilities of different people, research indicates that the older we get, the longer it takes to recall facts. But slower recall is still recall. In fact, aging does not seem to have any effect on forgetting at all, which takes place at the same rate in younger and older people.
23. Paragraph 3_________
24. Paragraph 4 _________
25. Paragraph 5_________
26. Paragraph 6 ___________
A. Effects of aging on a person's recall ability
B. short-term memory versus long-term memory
C. retention as the second necessity for memory
D. like between learning strategies and effective memory skills
E. Significance of exercising your muscles
F. importance of staying intellectually active
27. Retention refers to _____________.
28. The rate of forgetting is the same _____________.
29. Remembering something all your life _____________.
30. Exercising your brain every day is beneficial _____________.
A. to the proper function of your memory
B. is called long-term memory
C. the capacity to store what you have learned
D. belongs to every long-term memory
E. the ability to remain mentally healthy
F. for younger and older people
First aid is emergency care for a victim of sudden illness or injury until more skillful medical treatment is available. It may save a life or improve certain vital signs including pulse, temperature, a clear airway(气道),and breathing. In minor emergencies, first aid may prevent a victim’s condition from turning worse and provide relief from pain. First aid must be administered as quickly as possible. In the case of the critically injured, a few minutes can make the difference between complete recovery and loss of life.
First-aid measures depend upon a victim’s needs and the provider’s level of knowledge and skill. Knowing what not to do in an emergency is as important as knowing what to do. Improperly moving a person with a neck injury, for example, can lead to permanent spinal(脊柱的) injury and paralysis(瘫痪).
Despite the variety of injuries possible, several principles of first aid apply to all emergencies. The first step is to call for professional medical help. The victim, if conscious, should be reassured that medical aid has been requested, and asked for permission to provide any first aid. Next, assess the scene, asking other people or the injured person’s family or friends about details of the injury or illness, any care that may have already been given, and preexisting conditions such as diabetes(糖尿病) or heart trouble. The victim should be checked for a medical bracelet(手镯) or card that describes special medical conditions. Unless the accident scene becomes unsafe or card that describes special medical conditions. Unless the accident scene becomes unsafe or the victim may suffer further injury, do not move the victim.
First aid requires rapid assessment of victims to determine whether life-threatening conditions exist. One method for evaluating a victim’s condition is known by the acronym(首字母缩写词) ABC, which stands for:
A- Airway: is it open and clear?
B- Breathing: is the person breathing? Look, listen, and feel for breathing.
C- Circulation: is there a pulse? Is the person bleeding externally? Check skin color and temperature for additional indications of circulation problems.
31.First aid may bring about all the following results EXPECT
A. saving a victim’s life.
B. preventing a victim’s condition from getting worse.
C. relieving a victim from pain.
D. helping a person avoid sudden illness or injury.
32.Before we administer first aid to a victim, it is very important for us
A. to make sure what to do and what not to do.
B. to refer to all kinds of handbooks on first aid.
C. to remove the ring or bracelet he may be wearing.
D. to take him to a hospital at once.
33.In administering first aid to a victim, you should first of all
A. remove him from the accident scene.
B. turn him over.
C. call for professional medical help.
D. examine him carefully.
34.You may assess a victim’s condition by all the following EXPECT
A. checking whether there is a pulse.
B. looking ,listening and feeling for breathing.
C. replacing his medical bracelet or card.
D. examining whether the airway is open and clear.
35.The purpose of the passage is to tell the reader
A. the importance of protecting the accident scene.
B. some basic facts about first aid.
C. what professional medical help is.
D. who can administer first aid.
Stress at Work and Still Healthy
The term could yet become the word of the year; stress is on everyone’s lips these days and everywhere. Not only managers, officials and teachers are complaining nowadays, housewives, children and pensioners now also have their own problems. They too sacrifice themselves for others, feel under-or overworked and quickly lose their inner balance. Irritation, tiredness and exhaustion quickly follow. But that is only the negative aspect. Stress, after all, is also linked to positive terms such as joy of life, tension and vitality(活力).
“Firstly, stress is healthy,” says Wolfgang Stehling from Eltvelle. The doctor and management consultant says:” It occurs when the body loses its inner balance, but then stress hormones are produced to re-establish the balance.” Thus stress is nothing more than a positive reaction of the body to pressure. It is unavoidable as part of our nature: ”There is no such thing as a stress-free life.”
But whether stress leads to tensions in the mind or to tenseness of the muscles depends on the duration（持续时间）, its cause or causes and the sufferer’s personal situation. People who have trouble sleeping or suffer from bad moods or simply the flu will not be on top of the world and will take every little strife as negative stress. Others, people who feel refreshed at every new turn, are relaxed and successful, will view a difficult round of negotiations or competition at work more as a positive challenge than a cross to bear.
Exercise, healthy eating and relaxing are thus the three pillars by which stress can be conquered almost every time. These factors form a unit, explains Marita Voelker-Albert, spokeswoman for the government’s Nutrition Advice Center in Cologne. Its campaign “Gut Drauf” (Feeling Good) is targeted at young people. The government agency’s research suggests that three out of four adolescents feel tired, overtaxed(负担过重)and under stress. Eating disorders and complaints such as migraines(偏头痛)and indigestion(消化不良),nervousness and concentration problems have increased among 12- to 16-year-olds.
But even the best solutions don’t work if they are not put into practice, says Stehling. Anybody who goes jogging regularly, practices yoga(瑜伽功)and prescribes good literature as a cure for negative stress, may well end up under more pressure as he tries to find the time for it all. Sometimes, says the consultant, it helps to take time out to reduce stress levels over a weekend.
36.Which of the following is NOT a correct view on stress?
A. Stress has both positive and negative aspects.
B. Stress is only a positive reaction of the body to pressure.
C. Stress only leads to serious problems.
D. Stress is unavoidable as part of our nature.
37. A person who has lost his inner balance may soon feel
A. fit and healthy.
B. under-or overworked.
C. relaxed and happy.
D. irritated, tired and exhausted.
38. Who will easily take every little strife as negative stress?
A. Those who suffer from the flu.
B. Those who are in good moods.
C. Those who are successful.
D. Those who feel refreshed at every new turn.
39. All the following complaints are said to have increased among children aged 12 to 16 EXPECT
A. painful headache.
C. nervousness and concentration problems.
D. loss of memory.
40. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a possible cure for negative stress?
A. Reading good literature.
B. Practicing yoga.
C. Having a healthy diet.
D. Working overtime.
Is the News Believable?
Unless you have gone through the experience yourself, or watched a loved one’s struggle, you really have no idea just how desperate cancer can make you. You pray, you rage, you bargain with God, but most of all you clutch at any hope, no matter how remote, of a second chance at life.
For a few excited days last week, however, it seemed as if the whole world was a cancer patient and that all humankind had been granted a reprieve(痛苦减轻) . Triggered by a front-page medical news story in the usually reserved New York Times, all anybody was talking about--- on the radio, on television, on the Internet, in phone calls to friends and relatives----was the report that a combination of two new drugs could , as the Times put it, “cure cancer in two years.”
In a matter of hours patients had jammed their doctors’ phone lines begging for a chance to test the miracle cancer cure. Cancer scientists raced to the phones to make sure everyone knew about their research too, generating a new round of headlines.
The time certainly seemed ripe for a breakthrough in cancer. Only last month scientists at the National Cancer Institute announced that they were halting a clinical trial of a drug called tamoxifen (他莫昔芬) ------ and offering it to patients getting the placebo(安慰剂) -----because it had proved so effective at preventing breast cancer (although it also seemed to increase the risk of uterine(子宫的) cancer). Two weeks later came the New York Times’ report that two new drugs could shrink tumors of every variety without any side effects whatsoever.
It all seemed too good to be true, and of course it was. There are no miracle cancer drugs, at least not yet. At this stage all the drug manufactures can offer is some very interesting molecules, and the only cancers they have cured so far have been in mice. By the middle of last week, even the TV talk-show hosts who talked most about the news had learned what every scientist already knew : that curing a disease in lab animals is not the same as doing it in humans. “The history of cancer research has been a history of curing cancer in the mouse,” Dr. Richard Klausner, head of the National Cancer Institute, told the Los Angeles Times. “We have cured mice of cancer for decades---and it simply didn’t work in people.”
41.According to the passage, a person suffering from cancer will
A. give up any hope.
B. pray for the health of his loved ones.
C. seize every chance of survival.
D. go out of his way to help others.
42. The unprecedented interest in the cure of cancer was aroused by
A. a nationwide discussion of the topic.
B. an announcement by the National Cancer Institute.
C. a medical news story in the Los Angeles Times.
D. a report in the New York Times.
43. According to the New York Times’ report, a combination of two new drugs could
A. prevent breast cancer.
B. reduce the size of all tumors.
C. cure various diseases.
D. prevent uterine cancer.
44. In the first sentence of the last paragraph, “it was ” means
A. “it was too good to be true.”
B. “it was true.”
C. “it was a miracle drug.”
D. “it was good.”
45. The history of cancer research has shown that
A. miracle cancer drugs often turn up unexpectedly.
B. the mass media can work wonders.
C. animals and humans are similar in behaviour.
D. curing cancers in mice is much easier than in humans.
A New Medicine to Treat Both AIDS and Hepatitis B
A medicine approved last moth to treat AIDS(艾滋病) also shows promise against hepatitis B(乙 肝炎).
The drug, 3TC, puts down the hepatitis B virus in people with chronic infections, stopping its damage to the liver, researchers reported.
About one million Americans are thought to be infected with hepatitis B, which can lead to cirrhosis(肝硬化),liver failure and liver cancer in a small proportion of victims if left untreated.__________(46).
“ It’s a preliminary study, but this is promising. It looks like it has the potential to make a significant impact on hepatitis B,” said Dr Jules L.Dienstag of Massachusetts General Hospital, who directed the study.
Currently the only treatment for hepatitis B is interferon(干扰素). Such a treatment can permanently eliminate the virus in about one-third of patients.___________(47).
In the latest study, doctors found that 3TC appeared to knock out the virus permanently in about 20%of patients when given for three months.___________(48)
Unlike interferon; 3TC is given in pill form and carries few side effects. The drug was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in November for use against AIDS.
Both the hepatitis B virus and the AIDS virus need a protein to reproduce.___________(49). Doctors have tested similar AIDS drugs against hepatitis B. but all except 3TC have turned out to be ineffective or too toxic(有毒的)。
Dr Jay Hoofnagle of the National Institutes of Health said a next step will be to combine 3TC with interferon to see if the two drugs together improve the chance of curing hepatitis B. “It looks extremely promising,” he said of 3TC__________(50)
A interferon must be injected for four to six months and often has unpleasant side effects, including flu-like symptoms, fatigue and depression.
B The hospital is among the biggest ones in America.
C Dienstag said he hopes that with longer treatment, this response rate can be doubled.
D “It’s not the answer, but it’s a step in the right direction.”
E Perhaps20% of these patients have lingering(迁延性的) infections that would benefit f from treatment.
F 3TC is one of a group of drugs that block production of this protein.
阅读下面的短文，文中有15处空白，每处空白给出了4个选项同，请根据短文的内容从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案，涂在答题卡相应的位置上A Special Clock
Every living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. The biological clock________(51) plants when to form flowers and when the flowers should open. It tells insects when to __________(52) the protective cocoon (防护卵袋) and fly away, and it tells animals and human beings when to eat, sleep and wake.
Events outside the plant and animal__________(53) the actions of some biological clocks . Scientists recently found, for example, that a tiny animal changes the color of its fur because of the __________(54) of hours of daylight. In the short_________(55) of winter, its fur becomes white. The fur becomes gray brown in _________(56) in the longer hours of daylight in summer.
Inner signals control other _________(57) clocks. German scientists found that some kind of internal clock seems to order birds to begin their long migration_________(58) twice each year. Birds _________(59) from flying become restless when it is time for the trip, _________(60) they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.
Scientists say they are beginning to learn which _________(61) of the brain contain biological clocks. An American researcher, Martin Moorhead, said a small group of cells near the front of the brain__________(62) to control the timing of some of our actions. These __________(63) tell a person when to wake, when to _________(64) and when to seek food. Scientists say there probably are other biological clock cells that __________(65) other body activities.
51 A says B asks C talks D tells
52 A reach B leave C escape D enter
53 A affect B adopt C avoid D express
54 A time B value C amount D number
55 A days B months C minutes D weeks
56 A shape B type C form D color
57 A physical B biological C mental D portable
58 A operation B flight C movement D transportation
59 A derived B prevented C originated D protected
60 A but B unless C therefore D if
61 A parts B ideas C sorts D images
62 A tries B likes C seems D wants
63 A functions B places C actions D cells
64 A lie B sleep C stand D walk
65 A build B demand C reflect D control
1.B 2.D 3.D 4.D 5.C 6.C 7.B 8.C 9.D 10.D
11.B 12.B 13.A 14.A 15.B 16.B 17.B 18.A 19.A
20.C 21.B 22.C 23.B 24.D 25.F 26.C 27.C 28.F
31.D 32.A 33.C 34.C 35.B 36.C 37.D 38.A 39.D
40.D 41.C 42.D 43.B 44.A 45.D
46.E 47.A 48.C 49.F 50.D
51.D 52.B 53.A 54.D 55.A 56.D 57.B 58.B 59.B
60.A 61.A 62.C 63.D 64.B 65.D